Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation
Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation
Second Five Year Short Term Agriculture Policies and Strategic Thrusts
Current landscape of agriculture sector in Myanmar
About 70% of the population in Myanmar resides in rural area and agriculture is their main livelihood. While the agriculture sector contributes 30% of national GDP, both the benefits that are gained from farming as well as the socio-economic status of farmers are extremely low.
Furthermore, farmers’ the socioeconomic status has been adversely affected by the effects of climate change, and natural and man made disasters. In particular, the unpredictable weather changes that have taken place almost annually in the wake of Cyclone Nargis in 2008 have led to tremendous crop damage and losses in the agriculture sector. At the same time, the failure to take effective actions on existing forest and soil conservation measures have exacerbated the soil quality and fertility. As a consequence, most farmers have not been able to break out of the economic down town they have experienced from chronically low productivity, low income, and rising indebtedness. In order to uplift the socio-economic condition of farmers and improve the performance of the agriculture sector, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation (MOALI) has made it a priority to support the development of the national economy through effective implementation of a proactive portfolio far reaching policies and strategic thrusts.
The aim of these new policies and strategic thrusts, referred to as Agriculture Policy 2016, is to create the enabling environment that will promote the production of a greater and more diversified range of high value agricultural, livestock, and fishery products. A major intention of Agriculture Policy 2016 is to take advantage of the comparative advantage that Myanmar has in the production of these high value products that are in increasing demand in both domestic and international markets.
The vision of Agriculture Policy 2016 is:
An inclusive, competitive, food and nutrition secured and sustainable agricultural system contributing to the socio-economic well being of farmers and rural people and further development of the national economy.
The Mission of Agriculture Policy 2016 is:
To enable rural population and agribusiness enterprises that sustain themselves from the production and sales of diverse, safe and nutritious foods, and agricultural products to have access to innovative and sustainable production, processing, packaging, logistics, and marketing technologies to meet the growing domestic and global demands.
The followings are the goals of the Ministry.
Improve food security, food safety, and nutritional status of agricultural products of the people of Myanmar.
Enhance agricultural diversification programmes in compliance with the changing market and the prevailing agro-climatic condition of the area.
Satisfy the specified quality requirements and standard of agricultural, livestock and fishery products as dictated by the market.
Improve the dissemination of market and price information.
Prevent the incidence and spread of pests and diseases in crops and livestock by wide spread use of IPM measures of a preventative nature and through development and adoption of Good Agriculture Practices - GAP, Good Animal Husbandry Practices - GAHP and Good Aquaculture Practices –GaqP.
Support the formation of crops, livestock, and fisheries producer groups and cooperative societies that aim in sustaining the development of agriculture sector.
Develop the seed industry and highly performing pure animal breeds and fish species, and conserve native breeds and species.
Develop and enhance agro-based industries, small scale industries, and cottage industries traditional weaving and handicraft and the vocational education, and rural infrastructure that is needed to support the development of these industries.
Improve and enhance research, the extension service, and human resource programmes.
The followings are the Objectives of the Ministry.
To ensure food and nutrition security and food safety.
To safeguard the rights of the farmers and to enhance their welfare and livelihood.
To advance and upgrade the agricultural sector by organizing farmers’ associations and cooperatives inclusive of small holders and subsistence farmers with promotion of gender role.
To attain sustainable rural development and to upgrade socio-economic conditions of rural people and farmers by improving rural infrastructure, enhancing access to markets, establishing small scale enterprises and designing participatory land use plans and management.
To seek technical assistance and mobilize the financial resources from local and international agencies in support of crops, livestock, fisheries and rural development in the agriculture sector.
To promote domestic and foreign direct investment in agriculture sector.
To promote competitiveness and value-added production of exportable agricultural commodities.
To encourage the development of agro-based industry, small scale enterprises, cottage industries, and income generation activities, including ten traditional artworks and crafts.
To improve the livelihood and income generation of the rural people through the development of agricultural cooperative enterprises and the cooperative system.
To develop effective linkages of production, trading, processing, services and consumer segments along the value chains of agricultural commodities.
To improve coordination mechanism of inter-governmental agencies, to foster public-private partnership and to establish collaboration and connectivity among all stakeholders including public agencies, academia, farmers’ associations, civil societies, and private sector with a view to enhancing rural development and reducing poverty .
Myanmar’s agricultural policy is to improve food and nutrition security and food safety for all the people and to enable smallholder farmers to increase their incomes through higher productivity and diversified production in response to market demand, as well as to enhance exports through and internationally competitive private agri-business sector.
These policies will provide consumers, producers, and businesses in the agricultural sector with a supportive legal and regulatory environment along with essential public investment, infrastructure and services as well as the mobilization of domestic and foreign investments. Specific policies to develop and utilize land, water and other natural resources in an inclusive, competitive, efficient, safe and sustainable manner can be organized into three categories: governance of land, water and other natural resources: access to inputs and technology for production: and value-added processing, marketing and export.
Policies related to agriculture sector of Myanmar are as follows:
Land Use and Management Policy.
Water Use and Management Policy.
Agricultural financing Policy.
Agricultural Mechanization and Input Sector Policy.
Cooperative Societies and Cooperative System Development Policy
Rural Infrastructure Development Policy.
Research, Development and Extension Policy.
Marketing, Value-added Processing and Export Policy.
Governance, Institutional and Human Resource Development Policy.
Environmental Conservation and Climate Change Resilience Policy.
Land Use and Management Policy
Land Use and Management Policy.
All farmers who produce crop, livestock and fish can access land in accordance with the existing Farm Land Laws, and also transfer, sell, mortgage, lend, exchange, give away, or inherit their land right including tilling and other land use.
To capture both fresh and brackish water fishery and produce fish systematically in accordance with the Laws.
To establish Special Zones for the production of agriculture, livestock and fishery products so as to improve productivity.
Arrangement will be made available for farmers’ freedom of choice to undertake any farming activities in accordance with Laws (agriculture, livestock, fishery sectors) that are economically viable, in the farm land which is granted to till and use.
Formation of groups of farmers, including crops and livestock, and fisherman, will be encouraged and supported and aimed to work within the Land Consolidation and Land Use Management system in the transformation to a larger scale farm parcels.
Assistance will be provided to those who are interested in farming activities, in particular, small holder farmers and farm labors, who are landless and have extremely limited financial resources will have the rights of tilling the land that they have cleared or developed as new farm land.
Development of new farm land will be undertaken in accordance with the National Land Use Policy.
Water Use and Management Policy
To undertake the necessary action and feasible measures to ensure that the entire Irrigation System leading from each and every completed irrigation dam, canal, and water pumping station becomes fully operational. The Water User Participatory Approach will be adopted in the water management system in order to maximize water use efficiency.
To implement feasible water supply projects for the benefit of farmers in different regions.
To explore the possibility of exploiting underground water for agriculture/ livestock/fishery and related activities without adversely affecting natural environment and water resources.
To construction and maintain inland and sea dikes to prevent fresh and brackish water intrusion which can cause flooding; and to excavate priority drainage canals in flood prone areas of different regions/states.
To ensure that irrigation water is accessible and efficiently utilized by farmers when needed for crops.
To establish Water User Groups in respective regions and states to ensure that irrigation water is effectively and efficiently utilized.
To implement rural drinking water project based on the prevailing water resources of the area.
Agricultural Financing Policy
To assist farmers in having access to financial support, loan, credit, capital investment and inputs for agriculture, livestock, fishery and cooperative activities.
To support the establishment of people centered financial facilities, such as, revolving fund, microfinance, and block grant, so as to improve the livelihood and incomes of the rural population.
To restructure and modernize the Myanmar Agriculture Development Bank to operate with full capacity so that long term and short term loan can be provided in addition to seasonal loan; and loans can be made available in a timely manner from the national budget and can be recollected and utilized
To attract Foreign Direct Investment which is necessary to financially and technically support the development in agriculture, livestock, and fishery activities and to access more international markets.
Agricultural Mechanization and Input Policy
To help support the increase use of well adapted quality farm machineries and equipment in an effort to transform into a more modern mechanized agricultural system.
To support the process of transforming agricultural commodity value chains by introducing machinery and equipment into postharvest and value-added activities, thereby enhancing the production of high quality agricultural products.
To support capacity building for technological development in agro-based industries in use of modern machineries and equipment in primary and value-added processing.
To formulate and enact laws, procedures, and directives to guarantee safe and systematic use of fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides, medicines and vaccines.
To support basic infrastructure development and upgrading initiatives to ensure the production of safe and high quality agricultural and livestock products for high end domestic and international markets.
To support improved access and use of quality seeds of crops, good animal breeds and fish fingerlings to enhance the production and improve the quality of agriculture, livestock and fishery products.
Cooperative Societies and Cooperative System Development Policy.
To support viable agribusiness initiatives, including investment in machineries and equipment, of cooperative enterprises, through innovative financing and existing microfinance credit programs.
To support the formation of cooperative societies, including monitoring and evaluation requirements as per the Cooperative Laws and Procedures, and to conduct Cooperative Education Trainings.
To uplift the economic, education, health, and living standard of family members of cooperative societies, in collaboration with relevant organizations.
To link with international cooperative organizations for productive collaboration.
To build the capacity of cooperative societies focusing on production, service provision, and trade aspects.
To support small scale enterprise, traditional weaving and handicraft making including 10 traditional artworks and crafts.
Rural Infrastructure Development Policy
To support sustainable development of rural roads and bridges, including farm to market to uplift the socio-economics of rural dwellers.
To support the provision of rural lighting electrical initiatives in areas outside of the national electrical grids, aiming to uplift the living standards and livelihoods of rural dwellers.
To support basic social infrastructures development through people-centered approach.
Research, Development and Extension Policy
To encourage private sector participation in the development programme of Research and Development, and Extension of advanced technologies.
To establish cooperation and collaboration with international organizations for exchanging modern agriculture, livestock and fishery technologies.
To support germplasm conservation; the development of different crop varieties resistant to climate, pests and diseases; fish resource conservation; the development of good livestock breeds and fish species which are resistant to disease and the adverse effects of climate change.
To support genetic resources conservation and maintenance in collaboration with relevant departments and organizations.
To enhance and improve the prevailing awareness raising programmes for farmers, livestock keepers, and fisher folks with active participation of concerned government departments, non-governmental organizations, and civil society organizations.
To establish a research system covering agriculture, livestock, and fishery sectors, at the national level and enhance sector-wise research and development programmes.
Marketing, Value-added Processing and Export Policy
To cooperate in the preparation and standardization of quality standards as well as in collection and dissemination of price and trade information, aiming to develop and improve access to markets for agriculture, livestock and fishery products.
To support the entire value chain starting from the export of raw materials to the production and export of value-added products aiming to increase incomes and mitigate postharvest losses experienced by producers (agriculture, livestock and fishery).
To encourage mutual consent between trading partners of governments; collection and dissemination of internal and external market information and issuance of relevant certificates by using advanced Information Technology.
Governance, Institutional and Human Resource Development Policy
Policy planning and implementation will be carried out in collaboration and coordination among concerned departments and with private sector organizations at the union level as well as the regional/state level.
New organizations are to be formed; already established organizations are to be restructured; strategic thrusts and performance capacities are to be upgraded so as to effectively and successfully implement policies and strategic thrusts (agricultural, livestock and fishery).
Academic education, vocational education and pre-service and in-service trainings will be enhanced aiming to further develop human resources.
To focus on development and emergence of good governance aiming to uplift the performance and service delivery of administrative staff.
To produce sector-wise competent technicians and assign specifically and effectively to relevant services and work.
Environmental Conservation and Climate Change Resilience Policy
To collaborate with internal and external organizations to acquire needed technology, construct basic infrastructures, and uplift the capacity of concerned departments and organizations - aiming at mitigating losses and damages caused by natural disasters; and implementing resilient agriculture, livestock and fishery activities.
To support the empowerment of socioeconomic responsiveness of farmers, livestock keepers and fisher folks when they are facing the adverse effects of climate change and natural disaster.
To conserve natural ecological system so as to sustain increased utilization, to mitigate land degradation, soil and biodiversity losses, and to ameliorate soil fertility.
Land Use and Management Strategic Thrust
To assist in settling of confiscated rice land and other lands in accordance with existing laws, rules and regulations.
To emphasize on developing vacant, fallow and waste lands into new crop land and livestock zones; priority will be given to effective use of land already allocated to agricultural and livestock zones.
To assist farmers, whose land has been confiscated in getting compensation fee or reimbursement fee or new lands as replacement in accordance with the law.
To allocate newly developed crop lands in certain areas having potential to become productive, to landless farmers and farm workers who are tilling the lands and residing in villages but lacking financial resources. Assistance will also be provided to secure land ownerships rights.
If the newly allocated crop lands with land use rights (developed from vacant, fallow and waste lands) are not used as foreseen earlier, these lands will be taken back by the state in accordance with existing laws.
Provided that rice lands remains fallow (unused) without sound justification, action will be taken in accordance with existing laws.
To assist farmers to enable to grow any profitable seasonal crops in the rice lands.
Focus will be made on drawing correct land map, soil classification and soil grading - using digital mapping system rather than traditional mapping system. All land not yet surveyed, but has potential for profitable use, will be surveyed and recorded.
To develop systematic records on shifting cultivation being practiced in highland/hilly regions; to value and respect traditionally and culturally adopted land rights by different ethnic groups; to support the development of highland cultivation and introduction of Sloping Agriculture Land Technology (SALT) for adoption.
Standard Operating Procedure for contract farming will be formulated for adoption by the farmers groups, livestock groups or fishery group on one side and by private companies on the other side to ensure that both parties involved in the contract farming are benefit.
To encourage and support small holder farmers in achieving land ownership rights, accessing agricultural technologies and markets – contributing to sustainable agriculture development activities and poverty reduction.
To monitor the types of fishing boats, fishing methods, fishing gears, and fishing sites engaging in both of fresh and brackish water fishery and supervise in accordance with the Fishery Laws.
Water Use and Management Strategic Thrusts
The existing dams, pumping irrigation projects, underground water drilling projects, water distribution system and irrigation system will be modernized and maintained in order to mitigate wastage and improve water use efficiency.
To support the construction and maintenance of village owned dams, ponds, irrigation and drainage system, and farmer-constructed dikes.
To exploit underground water and introduce drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation system in needed localities while ensuring that natural surroundings and water resources are least affected.
To construct and adequately maintain water dikes (fresh water protection), sea dikes (brackish water protection), and drainage canals depending on budget availability in prioritized localities.
Renovation and maintenance of water storage reservoirs, small dams and ponds will be carried out depending on available water resources and regional priorities, to provide water for agriculture and livestock activities, household uses including drinking water, and regional greening activities.
In order to guarantee efficient and effective use of irrigation water, the “Water User Groups (WUGs)” will be formed, the required by laws and procedures will be enacted, and the capacity of WUGs will be upgraded through training.
Acquisition methods for clean drinking water and relevant awareness raising will be implemented in rural areas.
Agricultural Financing Strategic Thrust
To seek local and external grants, loan, and investment for effective use in the development of agriculture sector, livestock and fishery sector, cooperative sector, and rural development sector.
To support in obtaining access to technology and financial assistance for the development of agro-based industry, small scale enterprise, livelihood and increased family income generation activities.
To assist farmers in obtaining investment loans, including the loan to purchase machinery and equipment with installment for agricultural and fishery activities, by linking them with relevant departments and providing them necessary services.
To assist in securing loans to partially cover the cost of production of agricultural, livestock, and fishery products and to encourage the development of cash borrowing system of development banks and commercial banks to help finance the farmers to purchase farm machineries and equipment.
To collaborate with concerned government departments and organizations for the emergence of Crop Insurance Scheme, and Credit Guarantee and Warehouse Finance Guarantee Scheme.
To support the establishment of people centered financial facilities, such as revolving fund, microfinance, and block grant so as to improve the livelihood and family incomes of rural population, and initiate basic infrastructure development to carry out social activities.
Agricultural Mechanization and Input Strategic Thrust
For the development of agricultural mechanization initiatives, Academic Education and Vocational Education training centers will be established to offer official Certificates for properly completed relevant courses.
To encourage and support the development of standardization of machineries and implements used in agriculture, livestock and fishery production activities.
To support large scale production and widespread use of small machineries and equipment by small holder farmers and livestock keepers in their day to day works in agriculture, livestock and fishery activities with the aim to developing an agricultural mechanization system.
To help coordinate in procurement of good quality inputs, such as, improved seeds, well-formulated fertilizers, registered pesticides, and herbicides, well-formulated feeds, appropriate veterinary medicines and other inputs so that farmers and livestock keeprs get the quality merchandise at cheaper prices.
Awareness raising, regular inspection, notification, punishment of fraudulent will be supervised in coordination with relevant departments and organizations to ensure that no fake products (fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, seeds, day old chick, animal feeds and veterinary medicines) are in the marketplace, and that they are in accordance with prescribed quality and standard, and that suppliers/venders abide by the existing laws, and finally that the right products are bought and used in the right ways.
To provide technical supports so that farmers can produce their own natural fertilizers for their own use.
To expand seed production farms and quality seed zones, on-farm demonstration plot for farmers, livestock zones and fishery zones in collaboration between the government agencies and private organizations - aiming to sufficiently supply locally adaptable seeds and disseminate proven technologies.
Cooperative Societies and Cooperative System Development Strategic Thrust
Support will be provided in accordance with the concept, ethic, essence and basic principles of Cooperative for successful development of cooperative enterprises.
To support the formation of cooperative societies, monitoring and evaluation in accordance with the Cooperative Association Laws and Procedures; and to support those societies already formed for further progress.
Micro Capital Loan will be provided to peoples at grass root level aiming to improve their income generating activities.
To assist farmers for the purchase of machineries and inputs with installment for use in agriculture, livestock and fishery activities.
Financial support will be provided, in coordination with concerned department, to farmers to develop their land so as to pave the way for transforming traditional farming into mechanized farming.
To upgrade the capacity of cooperative societies aiming to make them efficient in their production, trading, and service delivery activities.
To conduct capacity building training for personnel serving in different levels of the cooperative department and cooperative societies to understand cooperative ethic and basic principles, and to guide the cooperative societies under prevailing cooperative laws and by-law.
To seek financial support when deemed necessary as grants, loans and other means of support from international sources for the development of cooperative enterprises.
To uplift the economics, education, health, and living standard of family members of cooperative societies, in collaboration with relevant organizations.
To support small scale enterprises, traditional weaving and handicraft making, including 10 traditional artworks and craft.
Rural Infrastructure Development Strategic Thrust
A strategic plan for the development of rural transport roads and bridges will be formulated and implemented, so that at least one main road will be available in all seasons for all villages by 2030.
Rural electric programme will be implemented in areas outside of the electrical grid, in accordance with national electrical programme.
Rural lighting programme will be implemented in collaboration with private sector.
The necessary rules and regulations for the development and implementation of the Mini Grid will be formulated and enacted.
Rural housings and latrines will be built for villagers who are under emergency condition and are affected by natural disaster and lost their houses.
To support basic social infrastructures development programme through people-centered approach.
Research, Development and Extension Strategic Thrust
For the strengthening of agriculture, livestock, fishery, and rural infrastructure, advanced laboratories will be constructed and equipped with modern laboratory apparatus and equipment.
For the development of research activities, technologies, and human resources, subject matter specialists will be trained under the short and long term plan.
To help enhance the adoption of advanced information technology and dissemination method in extension services of agriculture, livestock and fishery sector.
Awareness raising for farmers in utilization of properly registered pesticides, herbicides, veterinary / medicines/supplies, and fertilizers and good operational practices for agriculture, livestock and fishery sector activities in order to check and prevent further deterioration of water and soil resources and to conserve natural environment.
To undertake research programmes for the development of climate change resilient technologies for the production of crops, livestock and fishery sectors while contributing to effective utilization of soil and water resources.
To implement breeding programmes for the development of good quality, high yielding varieties of crops which meet the market demand and locally adaptable. In addition climate resilient and pest/disease resistant crop varieties, good and pure animal breeds will be developed under the programme.
Practically applicable postharvest technology will be developed aiming at mitigating postharvest losses/ damages and maintaining good quality after harvest.
Internationally recognized Academy of Agriculture, Livestock, and Fishery Research and National Agricultural Research and Extension System will be established with intention of developing research with full participation of government organizations, specialists, civil society organizations, non-governmental organizations, and private companies.
To implement research and extension programme for the development of machines, machineries, and equipment in modernizing agriculture, livestock and fishery sector.
Marketing, Value-added Processing and Export Strategic Thrust
Support for the development of value added processing industryusing primary products of agriculture, livestock and fishery sector, and to find ways so as to successfully compete well in the international markets.
Support for technology dissemination and for having access to financial sources to enhance the emergence of value-added processing industry.
Coordinate for in time access to sufficient local and international market information e about local and external trade, update on supply and demand situation, fluctuation of prices and other market information.
Sanitary, phytosanitory, quarantine, quality inspection and supervision related to regulations and procedures of importing countries will be strictly followed for export items of agriculture, livestock and fishery sectors. Release of information related to the above-mentioned activities will be made available for local and external stakeholders to support the production of agriculture, livestock and fishery products in accordance with the rules and regulations of importing countries.
Provide support for the development of improved animal health care and balanced nutrition system based on new technology so as to enhance the production of good quality animal and animal products.
Throughout the value chain of agro-business, Public Private Partnership – PPP mechanism involving government, private company and producers will be designed and adopted to guarantee equity in profit sharing.
To support an enabling environment to guarantee full participation of the government organizations, private companies and producers throughout the agro-business value chain, and to mobilize local and external investment fund into the sector.
To assist in the development of Wholesale Markets and Commodity Exchange Centers aiming to create a reliable and stable markets with assurance of prices for farm produce and to reduce logistic costs to the extent possible.
To support the participation of value chain stakeholders in important events such as trade fairs, seminars, and workshops organized in the country and abroad, aiming to have access to good markets for agriculture, livestock and fishery products.
To collaborate with international organizations so as to exchange advanced technologies in agriculture, livestock and fishery activities.
Governance, Institutional and Human Resource Development Strategic Thrust
e-Government system will be applied to administer the entire sector encompassing agriculture, livestock and fishery, while public relationship will be handled as One Stop Service.
For the seed sector to grow further, property rights for newly released seed varieties will be protected. Improving and conserving of native animal and fish species will be undertaken aiming to strengthen animal breeding programmes, for which necessary laws will be prepared and enacted for implementation.
To support the smooth cooperation and collaboration in the implementation of approved policies and strategic thrusts among officials at the union and state/regional levels, private sector, civil society organizations, and non-governmental organizations.
To ensure successful implementation of approved policies and strategic thrusts of the ministry; organizational set up of the departments will be restructured and performance in service delivery will be upgraded.
Service delivery performance of private sector organizations which have strong link with the departments will be assisted to enhance for further improvement.
Systematic training programmes will be prepared to train and produce subject matter specialists for the improvement of sector wise technical know-how and human resources, encompassing soil and water use and management, transformation toward agriculture mechanization, and establishment of modern marketing system.
Academic education, vocational education, pre-service and in-service training programmes will be enhanced aiming to further develop human resources.
Environmental Conservation and Climate Change Resilience Strategic Thrust
To collaborate in the area of conservation and protection of ecological system and natural environment for the emergence of sustainable agriculture, livestock and fishery activities.
Genetic resources conservation and utilization programme will be undertaken in collaboration and coordination with technical committees, relevant departments and experts.
In the implementation of rural infrastructure development programmes, the Environmental and Social Management Framework will be given full consideration.
Protection and control of soil degradation in hilly, sloping, and watershed areas will be undertaken in coordination with concerned departments. To mitigate soil erosion in the dry zone caused by water and wind, adoption of soil conservation farming practices, good agriculture practices, and effective water harvesting and utilization will be practiced.
To release weather information on time in support of agriculture, livestock and fishery sectors activities.
To implement climate resilient good practices – such as conservation agriculture, organic agriculture, good agriculture practices (GAP), biotic-abiotic stress tolerant varieties (heat tolerance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, deep water tolerance), good animal husbandry practices –(GAHP), good aquaculture practices – (GAqP), land use management, green water management,.
To enhance the implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), soil conservation farming practices, crop rotation and crop diversification programmes.